STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ON ADDMISSION IN IMO STATE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL OWERRI

0
1256

STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ON ADMISSION IN IMO STATE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL OWERRI

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Certification page      –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Dedication    –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Acknowledgment       –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Abstract       –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Table of contents       –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Chapter one

  • Introduction – –     –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Epidemiology and clinical features – –     –
    • Causative agents of malaria –     –     –     –
    • Incubation period –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Signs and symptoms – –     –     –     –     –
    • Life cycle     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Pathogenesis –     –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Effect of malaria in pregnancy – –     –     –
    • Treatment/management of malaria in pregnancy       –     –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Obstetric management of pregnant women with malaria infection –     –     –     –     –     –     –
    • Antepartum care of pregnant women with malaria – –     –     –     –     –     –     —    –
    • Intrapartum management of malaria in pregnancy
    • Post partum management of malaria in pregnancy
    • Prevention/control of malaria in pregnancy
    • Literature review
    • Objective of the study

Chapter two 

  • Materials and methods
    • Study population

2.2    Sample collection

2.3    Laboratory analysis

2.4    Reporting thick blood film

Chapter three

  • Prevalence and rate malaria infection in regard to trimester –     –     –     –     –     –

3.1 Prevalence and rate malaria infection in     regard to trimester –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –

Chapter Four                                                                                                       

  • Discussion

4.1    Conclusion

4.2    Recommendation

4.3    References

4.4    Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Malaria is an infections disease caused by a parasite, plasmodium which infects red blood cells. Historical records suggest that malaria has infected human since the beginning of mankind. The name “mal aria” (Meaning bad air in Italian) was first used in English in 1740 by H. Walpole when describing the disease. The term was shortened to malaria in 20th century. Laveran; in 1880 was the first to identify parasites in human blood. In 1889, Ross discovered that mosquitoes transmit malaria.

Malaria continues to be a cause of great suffering in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Brabin, 1989). Currently, it is endemic in about 100 countries affecting 4% of world’s population. Malaria has been eliminated or effectively suppressed in several parts of the world in past decade but is now undergoing resurgence (Gilles, 1987). It is returning to areas from which it had been eradicated as well as spreading into new areas such as central Asia and Eastern Europe. Despite global economic development people are dying from malaria now than 30 years ago.

  • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL FEATURES

Malaria in pregnancy remain a notable cause of maternal and prenatal morbidity and mortality, often associated with maternal illness, maternal anemia, low birth weight, preterm delivery and prenatal loss especially in the primigravidae. In semi-immune pregnant women, malaria infection may be asymptomatic, pregnant women are at risk of clinical disease compared to non-pregnant women at all levels of endemicity (Harrison, 1995). There is unparasitized blood cells leading to a greater level of anemia than can be explained on the basis of RBCS parasitization alone (who,1991).

Primgravidity is a known risk factor in pregnancy. It only becomes more prevalent in primigravide but also intense (Jimoh, 2003). The peak prevalence of parasitemia will be altered by prior anti malaria    injection. In a study from Madan, Papua New Guinea, the peak prevalence in primigravidae studied reached 55% to compared to 86% in other study from Kenya (flemming, 1986). Studies have also suggested that the highest prevalence of infection occurs in the 2nd trimester with inflection rate at delivery and in the postnatal period approximating to levels in non pregnant women possibly due to immunity boosting during pregnancy (Akindele, et al 1993)

CAUSATIVE AGENT OF MALARIA

Malaria is caused by five (5) species of plasmodium. They are as follows:

plasmodium vivax (p. vivax) – This species is milder and generally not fatal. However, infected people still need treatment because their untreated progress can also cause a host of health problems. (Rogreson et al 2007)

Plasmodium  Malariae ( P. Malaria) This species also is milder and not fatal. The infected person should be properly treated to avoid further health problems. This species is known to stay in the blood of the affected for several years (WHO, 2008).

Plasmodium  Ovale (P. Ovale) –  It is also mild and as well need adequate treatment to avoid serious health condition. It stays in the liver of the affected person even for years without symptoms. (Neeru, 2005)

Plasmodium Falciparum (P. Falciparum) This is the most serious form of the disease. It is most common in Africa, especially sub-saharan Africa. It needed thorough and adequate treatment of the affected person (Okwa, 2003).

Plasmodium knowlesi (P. Knowlesi). This causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans.

INCUBATION PERIOD OF PLASMODIUM

This refers to how long it takes from initial infection to the appearance of symptoms. This generally depends on the type (species) of parasite.

  • falicparum –     9 to 14 days
  • P. Vivax       –     12 to 18 days
  • P. vivax –     12 to 18 days
  • P. malaria –     18-40 days

However, incubation periods can vary from as little as 7 days to several months for P. vivax and p. ovale

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 8-25 days following infections. However, symptoms may occur later in those who have taken antimalaria medication as prevention. The signs and symptoms may include the following

  • Fever
  • Shivering
  • Joint pain (Arthralgia)
  • Vomiting
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Jaundice
  • Convulsion
  • Sudden coldness followed by rigor
  • Severe headache
  • Enlarged spleen etc.

LIFE CYCLE

The life cycle malaria is complex with asexual reproduction in the mammalian host and sexual reproduction in the anophelene vector. The female anopheles mosquito carrying malaria causing-parasites feeds on a human and injects the parasite in the form of sporozoites into the blood stream. The sporozoites travel to the liver and invade the liver. Within some days (5-6) the sporozites grow, divide and produce tens of thousands of merozoites. Some malaria parasite species remain dormant for extended periods in the liver. The merozoties exit the liver cells and re-enter blood stream to invade the red blood cell, it under goes asexual replication and release new formed merozoites from the red blood cells. Some of the merozoites infected blood cells instead of replicating asexually, develop into sexual forms of the parasite called male and female gametocytes that circulate in the blood stream.

When the mosquito has a blood meal, it ingests the gametocytes. In the gut, the infected human blood cell burst, releasing the gametocytes, which develop further into mature sex cell called gametes. Male and female gametes fuse to form ookinetes which burrow into the mosquito midgut and form outcasts. Growth and division of each oocyst produce thousands of active haploid forms called sporozoites which migrates to the salivary gland of the mosquito waiting for another round of blood meal (Ter kulie et al 2003)

PATHOGENESIS

During the life cycle of malaria parasites in human body, Mosquito infects a person by taking a blood meal. Initially, sporozoite enters the blood stream and migrate to the liver. They infect liver cells (hepatocytes); where they multiply into merozoites, rupture the liver cells and escape back into the blood stream. Then, the merozoites infect red blood cells, where they develop into ring forms, trophozoites and schizonts which in turn produce further merozoites. Sexual forms (gametocytes) are also produced, which if taken up by a mosquito, will infect the host and continue the life cycle. Malaria develop into too phases- exoerythrocytic and erythrocytic cycle/phases. Exoerythrocytic has to do with infection of hepatic or liver cells while erythrocytic phase entails infection of erythrocytes or red blood cell, the sporozite migrates to the liver and infects the hepatocytes. It can continue to multiply without showing any symptoms within 8-30 days (cogsnell, 1992).

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ON ADDMISSION IN IMO STATE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL OWERRI

Leave a Reply