PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY

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PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The maintenance of international peace and security is the greatest challenge of the United Nations (UN). It will be judged by how well it
fulfills this goal. It is, however it is important to remember that the organization was created to maintain peace not only by preventing and
resolving military conflict, but also by promoting economic and social progress and development. At its creation, the UN was based on a set
of assumptions that were expected to shape the post-war era. Legally, the UN was constructed on the thesis of sovereign nation-states, and
of the sanctity of the frontiers of each under the founding Charter. The collective security system was based on the assumption that the
grand alliance of the World War II would continue in a joint guardianship of world peace. However, collective security became a hostage of
the Cold War. Throughout the Cold War years, the UN was of marginal importance for dealing with the core international issues of war and
peace as the rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union paralyzed the Security Council. In the same way, questions about the
organization’s efficiency, capabilities, and cost-effectiveness were either ignored or considered of little significance. While the UN has
indeed saved lives, resolved conflicts, eradicated diseases, and promoted democracy, its failures have been widely reported and
contributed to the perception of an inefficient organization. UN did have some achievements during this period, but it did not play the role
that its founders anticipated. At the beginning of the 1990s, a new stage of world politics emerged. Since the end of the Cold War, the UN has
enjoyed a burst of unaccustomed influence. It suddenly found itself overburdened by the many new tasks which governments have given to
it. Many people expressed optimistic opinions about the role of UN multilateral ism in the new world order UN is no longer ignored and or
neglected.
Evaluations of the organization now relate mainly to what it does, tries to do, or should do, as an operating agency in the field. The efforts of
adapting UN system to the changing realities of the international politics and making the UN a more efficient organization dates back to the
earliest years of the organization UN has been trying to respond many changes it had gone through since its foundation without making
any amendment in the Charter. These developments range from the Cold War to decolonization process and social and economic rights
resulting from it, from a more widespread recognition of the human rights to the international action with the purpose of protecting
common values. Some of these prevented the UN from functioning as planned by the Charter, and others required it to assume new
responsibilities. Generally, all efforts aimed at adapting the UN to the changing conditions are called reform. Re-organization of the
Secretariat, redefining priorities, re-organization of the inter-governmental mechanism are only some ohem.4 Some think that only
change must be achieved is that making the UN more efficient and this effort does not require an amendment in the Charter. On the other
hand, developing countries believe that other issues, Iike membership of the principle organs and committees and reorganization of the
relationship between the UN and specialized agencies, must be included in the reform process.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The UN has been argued from the foregoing to have been established to enhance global peace, security and development .This study aims
to investigate the factors that are responsible for the organizations inability to achieve global peace and security which would have ushered
in global development after sixty –six years of its existence. With the wide variety of threats to international peace and security that followed
the Cold War’s end, the United Nations undertook more peacekeeping operations than at any time in the previous 45 years. As these
increasingly taxed the UN’s capacity, regional and sub regional organizations (IGOs) initiated peacekeeping and efforts began to look at the
possibilities for a division of labor. The significance of safety and security for UN peace operations is often underestimated or
misunderstood. 1 While always an issue of interest, it has been narrowly conceived, for example, as minimizing casualties and expanding
legal protections. But safety and security has a strategic impact, including on the efficacy of mandate execution, force generation, the
evolution of peace operations, and the role of the UN in the maintenance of international peace and security. While many of the relevant
safety and security issues have been identified, they have not been understood in a holistic manner and addressed with sufficient priority.
Since its inception, UN peacekeeping has undergone significant evolution, moving from unarmed inter positional ceasefire monitoring
forces to integrated multidimensional missions, which now carry out a spectrum of activities and are mandated to use force. Peacekeepers
often operate in volatile environments and with a mandate to protect civilians. Likewise, alongside peacekeeping operations, special
political missions have increasingly complex mandates and are being deployed into ever more dangerous situations. Fragile government
structures and intractable political disputes have created instability and environments where threats proliferate. The nature of the threats
continues to evolve, with targeted and asymmetric hostile acts against UN personnel becoming more regular feature of many missions.

1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY

The major purpose of this study is to examine the public perception on the challenges and prospects of United Nations security. Other
general objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the safety and security situation in the UN system.
  2. To examine the actions taken towards abating the security Crisis by the United Nations.
  3. To examine the impact of the challenges faced by UN Security Council on peacekeeping.
  4. To examine the challenges encountered by the United Nations Security Council.
  5. To examine the role and importance of United Nations Security Council.
  6. To suggest ways to proper solutions to the Crisis faced by the UN Security Council.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How is the safety and security situation in the UN system?
  2. What are the actions taken towards abating the security Crisis by the United Nations?
  3. How is the impact of the challenges faced by UN Security Council on peacekeeping?
  4. What are the challenges encountered by the United Nations Security Council?
  5. What are the role and importance of United Nations Security Council?
  6. What are the ways to proper solutions to the Crisis faced by the UN Security Council?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

H0: There is no significant impact of challenges faced by the UN Security on peacekeeping.
H1: There is a significant impact of challenges faced by the UN Security on peacekeeping.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will examine the historical antecedents of internal security crisis in the world and the extent to which it has affected the well
being of citizens and also its impact on security. Globalization has even generated the WTO clause on National Security exception which
empowers the US and other Western powers to divert civilian fund for arms production for export; thus increasing militarization for the
globe and increasing insecurity problems that hinder the tranquility required for productive activities that will develop societies. The theory
argues that these groups control the world systems and its rules and was responsible for the two world wars, the dissolution of the League
of Nations and the foundation of the UN. To most manmade disasters such as the attacks on US on September 11, 2001, are masterminded
by the state actors in this cabal but shielded from the public through the media also controlled by them. The theory adds that in such
situations states and organizations that do not act their interest are singled out as culprits for destruction and their principal aim is simply
to create a single world, a new world order in which they have complete control both politically and economically. The theory argues that
this cabal controls the UN and its agencies and accounts for the double standard of which the UN is known for.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is based on the public perception on the challenges and prospects of United Nations security.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or
information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on
the time devoted for the research work.

PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY

PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON THE CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY