The proliferation of information and communication technology has had a significant influence on knowledge sharing practices and service delivery in organizations. This has raised the consciousness of libraries to adopt the use of social media for the exchange of knowledge and to improve library services. Studies have indicated that knowledge sharing practices are not fully integrated in most libraries while there seems to be lowprovision of a technology enhanced library services in most libraries. Hence, this study investigated the extent to which social media is used to share knowledge and improve library services in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria.

The survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study consisted of all 204 librarians in 21 tertiary institutions in Lagos State. Total enumeration was used for the study. A self structured questionnaire titled “Social Media Use as a Determinant of Knowledge Sharing Practices and Service Delivery” (SDKS) was used for data collection. 204 copies of the questionnaire were administered and returned. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability test for each of the variables ranged from the Types of Social Media Use (0.93) to the Types of Library Services (0.95). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics for the research questions while linear regression was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings revealed that social media use (β =.377, p<0.05) had a significant positive influence on knowledge sharing practices,also, social media use (β =.397, p<0.05) had a significant positive influence on service delivery of librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State. In addition, the study showed that librarians mostly use brainstorming and verbal discussions forknowledge sharing among other knowledge sharing practices, which implied that knowledge sharing practices of librarians were low. Also, the services provided by librarians were e-reference services, database search, online user education and e-reader services among other available library services. This indicated that the provision of library services were moderately low in the library while findings revealed that available social media tools were not fully utilized by librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.

The studyconcluded that social media use had a positive influence on knowledge sharing practices and service delivery of librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The study recommendedthat knowledge sharing practices such as mentoring, community of practices, staff meetings and storytelling that were scarcely used to share knowledge should be encouraged in the library. Also librarians should promote e-library services such as e-current awareness services, selective dissemination of information, instant messaging services and distance learning services using diverse social media tools such as Pinterest, Ning, Flicker,, Instagram and Social Bookmarking that were sparingly used in the library.


Content                                                                                                                       Page

Title Page                                                                                               i

Certification                                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                                        v

Table of Contents                                                                                    vi

List of Tables                                                                                              viii

List of Figures                                                                                          ix


1.1       Background to the Study                                                           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                            8

1.3       Objective of the Study                                                               8

1.4       Research Questions                                                           9

1.5       Hypotheses                                                                           9

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                           10

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                     11

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms                                  12


2.0 Introduction                                                                         13

2.1       Social Media use in Libraries                            13

2.2       Knowledge Sharing Practices                        20

2.3       Service Delivery in Libraries                        23

2.4       Social Media Use and Knowledge Sharing Practices in Libraries 24

2.5       Social Media use and Service Delivery in Libraries                    28

2.6       Social Media Types for Knowledge Sharing Practices and Service Delivery in Libraries                 36

2.7       Theoretical Frameworks          41                            

2.8          Conceptual Model      44

2.9       Appraisal of Literature                                      46

Content                                                                                        Page  


3.0       Introduction                                                                                               47

3.1       Research Design                                                                        47

3.2       Population                                                                                      48

3.3       Sample size and sampling Technique              49

3.4       Research Instrument                                                                                    49

3.5       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                                   50

3.6       Method of Data Collection                                                         50

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                      50

3.8       Ethical Consideration                                                                  51


4.0       Introduction                                                                        52

4.1       Demographic information                               53

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions                              55

4.3       Test of Hypotheses                                                          64

4.4       Discussion of Findings                                             66


5.0       Introduction                                                      71

5.1       Summary                                                                        71

5.2       Conclusion                                                           72

5.3       Recommendations                                                      72

5.4       Contribution to Knowledge                                         73

5.5       Suggestion for Further Studies               73

References                                                                                      75

Appendix A: Questionnaire                                                                  90

Appendix B: Ethical Clearance                                                     


Table                                                                                                                           Page

3.1       Study Population                                                                       45

4.1       Demographic Characteristics of the Sampled Participants N=204 49

4.2       Types of Social Media Use by Librarians                          51

4.3       Purposes of Social Media Use in the Library                    52

4.5       Extent of Social Media Use in the Library                               53

4.6       Knowledge Sharing Practices in the Library                  55

4.7       Types of Library Services                              56

4.9       A Summary of Linear Regression Analysis showing the influence of social media use on knowledge sharing practices of librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State 57

4.10     A Summary of Linear Regression Analysis showing the influence of social media use on service delivery of librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State                      58


Figure                                                                                                              Page

2.2       Conceptual Model of Social Media Use as a Determinant of Knowledge    41

            Sharing Practices and Service Delivery(Self-constructed) 2016.                                          



  1. Background to the Study

In recent times, the use of social media has become a habitual part of everyday life. This is as a result of the proliferation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). It has taken over the traditional means of communication such as face to face interaction because of its dominant influence on the user community.  The term social media is broadly known as computer- mediated tool that allows people to create, share or exchange information, ideas, pictures and videos in virtual communities and networks.Social media is also known as a tool for interaction that gives room for exchange of knowledge between users. In a library environment, social media is viewed as Library 2.0 which is a form of communication and socialization among librarians and patrons while librarians are professionals concerned with the collection, storage, processing and dissemination of recorded knowledge in the library.

Studies have shown that librarians are using different social media tools such as Microblogs, Instant Messaging, Blogs, Wikis and Social Bookmarking for different purposes (Dickson & Holley, 2010). Other social media tools which librarians have been using advantageously include; Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube, LinkedIn and Google+. However, the extent to which these social media tools are used for knowledge sharing and service delivery is not certain.Library professionals in this information age are expected to take advantage of the influx of technology to exchange knowledge and provide library services to meet up with the information needs of library users; and social media has posed itself as a medium of taking information to the door steps of library patrons in the 21st Century.

Social media is a tool that can flourish in Nigerian academic libraries with the advancement in technology. Nigeria as a developing country has witnessed the establishment of libraries in all the States in the country. Academic libraries in Nigeria are looking out for technology channels to share knowledge and improve library services. Social media are tools that Nigerian libraries can use to reach out to a large number of the user community.  Citing Akporhonor and Olise (2015) on their findings on social media use by librarians in South- South, Nigeria revealed that social media enhances communication among librarians and the user community but social media is underutilized by librarians in South-south, Nigeria for the provision of library services. The study emphasized that in order for librarians to reach out to the 21st Century users, social media is a channel of reaching out to the patrons.

Another study on social media use revealed that social media is mostly used for socialization among friends and keeping up to date with current trends, citing reference to Madhusudhan (2012) in a survey on the University of Delhi scholars to ascertain the use, benefits, and defects of using social media. The study found that a large number of Delhi University scholars are aware of social media and some use social media for communication purpose only; others use social media to connect with the academic community and source information and knowledge from others. The study also found that majority of the scholars’ use social media for “lurking” (that is reading the postings in an internet forum without actively contributing) while a few of the scholars use it for the promotion of research.

There is much benefit from connecting with people through social media, whether to network, promote a product or service, or to keep abreast with the latest news (Bell, 2014). The use of social media is a new means by which the library can showcase the services it can render to the user community. This will enhance the reputation of the library in that it gives the library unrestricted interaction between librarians and the patrons. Social media serves as a platform to create a better understanding of the information needs of users and also create an awareness of the services available in the library.

The use of social media is cost effective and enables individuals in terms of communication and information sharing by creating online virtual communities (Fu, Lui & Wang, 2008). Social media use in the library is also relevant because it facilitates communication process between librarians and the patrons, improves marketing of library services, creates awareness of library resources, enhances collaboration among librarians and provides feedback on the services offered to the patrons (Gupta, Uautam & Khare, 2014). 

Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is a crucial aspect of effective learning that encourages learners to interact with each other through social media (Weinberger & Fischer, 2006).  In this modern society, the mere mention of social media springs up excitement especially among individuals who have embraced technology. Among the common social media tools that can be used by librarians to enhance knowledge sharing and service delivery include: Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube, SlideShare Pinterest and so on.

Zande (2013) noted that the use of social media for work purposes have a positive effect on knowledge sharing within an organization which is influenced by the organizational culture towards its use. Social media, however, enables users to easily share knowledge among themselves with the aid of ICT (Panahi, Watson & Partridge, 2012).Knowledge sharing is an aspect of knowledge management considered as a process of transferring knowledge such as skills, experiences and understanding between individuals, groups and organisations while knowledge sharing practices are diverse personal interactive processes such as discussions, debates and meetings, where one is influenced by other’s experiences (Latupapua, 2016). Other knowledge sharing practices include; verbal discussion, seminars/workshops, mentoring, staff meetings, storytelling, community of practice, and so on. Knowledge sharing practices are means where people share what they know. Knowledge sharing practices in organisations is important because it brings about innovation and creativity.

Knowledge sharing is a new concept and has not been fully integrated in libraries. Today, libraries are becoming more conversant with the benefits of knowledge sharing practices and creating avenues to introduce knowledge sharing in the library, citing reference to Mosha, Holmner and Penzhorn (2015) who conducted a study on the librarians of Nelson Mandela University and found that knowledge sharing practices in the library is low. In Malaysia, the case is the same with reference to Chong (2003) whose findings showed that libraries have not fully implemented knowledge sharing except few government bodies who only use face to face interaction to share knowledge.

The contemporary society has developed huge interest in the area of knowledge due to its benefits to the society and organizations. It is all about bringing and getting knowledge, where individuals learn from experiences from each other through the knowledge shared. On the other hand,the library profession has attempted to identify the means by which librarianscan promote knowledge sharing practices among librarians through the use of social media. Knowledge sharing in a social media environment is important among librarians because it gives librarians unique ideas on how to serve the patrons better. Knowledge sharing practices brings out the best from librarians because shared understanding is a driving force for the growth of any organisation. The value of knowledge is viewed in two different ways; knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Once knowledge is created, it can be used by others for different purposes and once knowledge is shared, new knowledge is created (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). Knowledge creation is achieved using social media through the communication process.

Knowledge is important in organisations because it gives organisations its uniqueness and also makes the organisation outsmart its competitors. Knowledge sharing practices, according to Lam (2000), is influenced by the two broad categories of knowledge which are tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is obtained through experiences and tacit knowledge is difficult to articulate while explicit knowledge is documented knowledge obtained through formal learning. Knowledge sharing is a key concept associated with the conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge which results in the transfer of knowledge from one individual to another.

Effective knowledge sharing boosts an organisational intellectual capital which is the most important asset of an organisation. MacAdam (1998) noted that knowledge sharing is an essential part of libraries because libraries play a key role in knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing is achieved in the library when technical and systematic infrastructure is put in place (Seonghee & Boryung, 2008). Harinarayana and Raju (2010) opined that libraries use social media to provide organized resources, arouse user participation and engage in the act of knowledge sharing. Furthermore, librarians can use social media to stimulate users in creating new library services by contributing their knowledge online (Casey & Savastinuk, 2010).

The rate at which knowledge is shared on social media is overwhelming. The use of ICT has made it easy for knowledge to be shared and received by users on social media platform. The library professionals are not left out; one will attest to the fact that even if a library does not create its social media platform, librarians still visit social media sites for their personal interest. Quinn, Anderson and Finkelstein (1996) noted that the challenge to sharing of knowledge by professionals to their peers is insecurity because professionals view their knowledge as most precious asset in their possession which should be guided jealously. Knowledge sharing practices in organisations have a positive effect on service delivery by offering new ways of promoting organisational values.

Libraries today are embarking on new ways to enhance service provision to the users and knowledge sharing practices have the potentials of improving library services using information communication technology.Libraries are becoming more relevant by providing electronic library services to support the physical library. Technology has taken over the world of communication and libraries are taking the opportunity to reach out to users in the electronic environment. Meyega (2008) defined service delivery as a process of making information resources available through library facilities and procedures for onsite use, circulation and inter library loans. Service delivery is also a means that defines the interaction between providers and clients, where the provider offers a service that can be information or a task, and the client either finds value or looses value in the service offered (Tetra Images, 2015).

A library is expected to provide accessible services to its users. Librarians are required to provide services to satisfy the information needs of the user community. Libraries provide a broad range of services depending on the type of library. There are services peculiar to all libraries such as reference service, current awareness services lending services, interlibrary loans and document delivery, literature search, selective dissemination of information, outreach services and so on (Aina, 2004). A library also provides services such as the organization of information and analyses of information needs of users. Meyega (2008) categorized library services into user services and technical services. User services include: circulation, bibliographic instructions, government documentation, special collection and reference services while technical services include: acquisition, cataloguing, classification, interlibrary loan, serial systems and document delivery.

Literature has established that the provision of a technology enhanced library services is low in most libraries, citing reference to Akpoiroro and Okon (2015) in a study on students’ satisfaction with service delivery in federal universities in South-South, Nigeria, revealed that students satisfaction with library services were low due to inadequate information technology facilities in the institution. Mishra (2008) noted that today’s users are anxious in getting handy electronic information resources to meet their needs and the ability to make available speedy and easy retrieval of information resources poses a challenge to library professionals. The traditional library is evolving to the electronic library. The electronic library services are important because it gives libraries the room to attend to users in the global community. Electronic library services commonly used on the Internet and the World Wide Web include; computerized library catalogs, electronic databases, instant messaging services, distance learning services, virtual references and interlibrary loans.

Libraries in this information age offer services in physical and electronic formats. Librarians are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building by shifting from the physical library to the electronic/virtual environment. Libraries in the technology era provide services via the virtual library and also through the Internet. In order for libraries to remain significant towards the provision of quality services; social media is a tool that can assist libraries to meet up with the challenging needs of users in this contemporary society (Meyega, 2008). The findings of the study conducted by   Ikonne, Onuoha and Madukoma (2013) on marketing of information services in the social media framework of communication showed that promoting library services is a means of preparing the library to face the technology transformed world. The study revealed that the use of some social media tools is easy and cost effective. The study concluded that using social media for service delivery will make libraries more interesting in the area of library acquisition, organisation and dissemination of library services.

In a study carried out by Ayiah and Kumah (2011) at the University of Winneba on social media tools for effective service delivery found that the idea of social media use by librarians to offer services is embraced by the users who prefer library services on social media sites which will inspire them to learn and also entertain themselves at the same time. The study also found that 72% of respondents’ preferred accessing the library’s web page on social media to enable them make comments on issues confronting them. Islam and Habiba (2015) in a study on the use of social media in Bangladesh found that majority of librarians in Bangladesh were of the opinion that social media use by librarians have expanded in recent times. The study revealed that social media is important in promoting library resources and services which assists students and researchers in the library. Majority of librarians use social media to share library news and events, video conferencing, advertisement and research work. The study concludes that librarians view social media as a means of sharing and promoting library services.

The use of social media has come to stay in the library world. A library as a learning organization can be successful by integrating the knowledge of librarians into the process of promoting library services. Libraries can take advantage of the use of social media for effective knowledge sharing practices and service delivery. Therefore, it is paramount to find out whether social media is used by librarians for knowledge sharing practices and service delivery in tertiary institutions in Lagos Sate, Nigeria.

Lagos State is situated in the South-west Nigeria and considered as the most densely populated States in Nigeria and Africa (Citymayors, 2016). In 2014, Lagos State population was estimated at 21 million. This population is made up of different ethnic groups in Nigeria which includes: the Yorubas’, Hausas’, Igbos’ Fulanis’ and so on. There are also immigrants in the State such as: the Americans, the British, the Chinese, the Lebanese, the Ghanaians’ and so on. Lagos State is considered as the most economic viable states in the country with the largest concentration of industries, sea ports, financial institutions and learning resource centres. The choice of Lagos State for this study is paramount because Lagos as a developed state that has established tertiary institutions with librarians which are expected to take advantage of the influx of technology to share knowledge and provide library services in order to meet up with the information needs of users.

According to World Bank (2015), tertiary institutions refers to any type of education pursued beyond the high school level which includes diplomas, undergraduate and graduate certificates, associate’s bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. Tertiary institutions include universities, colleges, technical training institutes, nursing schools, research laboratories and distance learning centres. This study focused on tertiary institutions in Lagos State.

  1. Statement of the Problem

The potentials of knowledge sharing practices and technology enhanced service delivery in organizations have raised the consciousness of libraries to adopt technology channels to improve library services in order to meet up with the demands of the 21st Century users.  Past empirical research has revealed that knowledge sharing practices are not fully integrated in most libraries and knowledge sharing brings about innovation and creativity in organizations. On the other hand, there seems to be low provision of a technology enhanced library services in most libraries’ which will improve the service delivery of users in this challenging digital environment. As a result of the importance of knowledge sharing and technology enhanced library services in organizations, there is an increase in the number of libraries that are adopting and implementing the use of social media for knowledge sharing and service delivery advantageously. Despite the awareness of the potency of knowledge sharing and service delivery, it is not certain the extent to which social media is used to share knowledge and improve library services in libraries in Nigeria. Therefore, this study investigated social media use as a determinant of knowledge sharing practices and service delivery by librarians in tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria.