SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER AND ITS EFFECT
This research paper examines the effects of solid wastes, quality and its control on groundwater pollution in Ikirun (Maboreje and Okeafo areas) Osun state Nigeria. The study was born out of unregulated manner in which both domestic and industrial wastes are deposited on the streets, river courses, buried, burnt and discarded in refuse heaps. Solid waste commonly generated in Ikirun includes papers and polyethene, tin and metals, ashes and dust, texture and rags, aluminium and other minerals. The analysis of physical, chemical and biological of raw water at ten different locations in Ikirun close to dump areas shows these wastes produce leachates and gases when they are decomposed and are washed by percolating and infiltrating rain water into the groundwater. However, most of the water parameters tested fall within World Health Organisation (W.H.O) recommendations while few are not. Inspite of this, recommendations are made to remedy the situations which include encouraging analysis of raw water, enlightenment campaign, groundwater exploration in Ikirun should be intensified and the principle of resource management should be adhered to.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 DEFINITION OF WASTES
2.2 SOURCES OF SOLD WASTES
2.3 COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WASTES
2.4 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES
2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARD OF SOLID WASTES
2.6 WATER POLLUTION FROM SOLID WASTES
2.7 SOURCES OF WATER
2.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER
2.9 EFFECT OF RAIN WATER ON UNDER GROUND WATER
2.10 COLOR DETERMINATIONS
2.11 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID WASTES (TSS) TOTAL DISSOIVED SOLID WASTES (TDS)
2.12 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID WASTES (TDS)
2.13 DISSOIVED OXYGEN (DO)
2.14 TYPE OF WASTES AND ITS CONSTITUENTS
2.15 SOLID WASTES EFFECT AND CONTROL ON UNDERGROUD WATER.
2.16 TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WASTES
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 PHYSICAL OBSERVATION OF THE STUDY AREAS
3.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 METHOD OF LABORATORY TESTS ON PH, TEMPERATURE, CONDUCTIVITY, ALKALINITY, TOTAL HARDNESS, CHLORINE AND BACTERIOLOGICAL TEST OF THE WATER SAMPLE.
4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
1.0 This chapter introduces what solid wastes are all about including its quality and effects on underground water. Solid wastes commonly known as trashes or garbages are wastes consisting of everyday items we consume and discard.
It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial resources.
While underground water is the water found beneath the soil. Underground water occurs as a result of rain fall entering into the soil surface. It may also occur as a result of percolation from surface water into the soil. When rain falls to the ground, the water does stop, some flow along the surface to the streams or lakes, while some are used by plants, some evaporate and return to the atmosphere while some sink into the ground . When pouring a glass of water into a pile of sand, it is obvious that the water will move into the space between particles of sand. Scientifically, groundwater is found in the cracks and spaces in the soil, sand and rock.
It moves slowly through layers of soil, sand and rock called aquifers. Aquifers typically consist of gravel, sand, stone or fractured rock, like lime stone. These particles are permeable because the large connected spaces that allow water to flow through the speed at which ground water flows depends on the size of spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are connected. The area where water full aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone).
The top of the zone is called the water table. The water table may be located either a meter below the ground surface or it consists of thirty meter down . Groundwater can be found almost everywhere. The water table may be deep or shallow and may rise or fall depending on many factors.
Heavy rains or melting snow can cause the water table to rise or heavy pumbing groundwater supplies may cause the water table to fall. Water in aquifers is brought to the surface naturally through spring can or be discharged into lakes or streams. Groundwater can also be extracted well drilled into aquifers. A well is a pipe in the ground that fuse with groundwater. The water can be brought to the surface by a pump. Some wells called artesian wells, do not need a pump because of natural pressure that forces water up and out of the well. Groundwater supplies are replenished or recharged by rain and snow melt. In some areas of the world, people face serious shortages of water because groundwater is used faster than it is naturally replenished or recharged. If ground becomes polluted, it will no longer be safe to drink. Groundwater is used for drinking water by more than 50% of the people. In the United States including almost everyone who lives in rural areas it is important for all of us to learn how to protect our groundwater because of its importance as a source of water for drinking and irrigation.
In other areas groundwater is polluted by human activities, in areas where material above the aquifer is permeable, pollutant can be easily sunk into the groundwater. Ground-water can be polluted by landfills, septic tanks, leaking underground gas tanks, and from over use of residual single and multi-dwellings, food wastes, wood, papers, cardboards, textile leather, yardwastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, special wastes(e.g bulky items, tyres) and household are hazardous wastes. Industrial light and heavy manufacturing, fabrications, power and chemicals and plants, house keeping wastes, packaging, food wastes, construction and demolition materials, ashes are specials wastes.
In other words wastes from hotels, restaurants, markets, office building( paper, card board, food, plastic, glass metals), institutional schools, hospitals, prisons, government centres, heavy and light manufacturing refineries, chemical plant, mineral extraction, industrial scrap materials, municipal services, street cleaning , land scraping, parks bleaching, recreational areas, water and wastes water management plant contribute immensely to the contamination of groundwater and they are the most common sources of wastes generation. It is noted that solid wastes have a great effect on the quality of underground water as a result of percolation, infilteration, leachate and dis-integration of wastes material by the action of rainfall into the ground.