CHARACTERISATION OF CLAY DEPOSIT IN GWANDU TOWN OF KEBBI STATE AND ITS POTENTIAL IN CERAMIC PRODUCTION, A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
Characterization and analysis of Gwandu clay deposits has been conducted with a view to finding its possible industrial applications. The chemical analysis was carried out using XRF and thermal stability was determined using TGA. While the physical property tests such as firing shrinkage, porosity, cold crushing strength, bulk density, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness were done. The results of chemical analysis indicates that Dabagi clay is composed of SiO2 (64.50%), Al2O3 (16.30%), Fe2O3 (14.29%), CaO (0.29%), TiO2 (1.17%), K2O (0.74%), and other oxides in traces and Fadama clay has SiO2 (55.90%), Al2O3 (13.90%), Fe2O3 (24.45%), CaO (0.75%), TiO2 (1.71%), K2O (1.13%) and other oxides in traces. Termite hills clay on the other hand gave SiO2(25.00%), Al2O3 (6.30%), Fe2O3 (30.63%) CaO (1.00%), TiO2 (3.02%) and other traces. However, the TG analysis shows the changes in the clays when heated. The clays started losing water when heated up to 200 – 3000C.The significant changes where observed between 5000C to 7000C where dehydration of clay material occurred for Dabagi and Fadama clays. The results of the physical tests conducted show: Dabagi has a Pa-38.46%, Bd-1.81g/cm3, LS- 6.80%, TSR-7 cycles, CCS-5.44Km2, PCE-13 and LOI-4.46%. Fadama clay: Pa-40.29%, Bd-1.79g/cm3, LS-6.00%, TSR-5 cycles, CCS-5.17Km2, PCE-13 and LOI-3.69%. And Termite clay: Pa- 46.15, Bd-1.54g/cm3, LS-5.80%, TSR-3 cycles, CCS- 4.59Km2, PCE-12 and LOI-3.69.Rice husk ash, kaolin and limestone clays were also incorporated (as an inert or non-plastic additive) in the moulding mass which gave an improvement in the physical properties. The results obtained confirmed that the clays are basically earthenware clays and can be used in the bricks, tile, roof tile, drain tile and other heavy clay products production.
Introduction and literature review
1.1 Research Background
A ceramic is an earthy material usually of silicate nature and may be defined as a combination of one or more metals with a non-metallic element usually oxygen. The American ceramic society (1986) had defined ceramics as inorganic non-metallic materials, which are typically crystalline in nature, and are compounds formed between metallic and non-metallic elements. Common examples are; silica – (SiO2) the main ingredient in most glass products; alumina- (Al2O3), used in various applications from abrasives to artificial bones; and more complex compounds such as hydrous aluminium silicate (Al2Si2O5 (OH)4), the main ingredient in most clay product ( Reed, 2001).