INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND REMEDIAL MEASURES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE CASE STUDY OF GANMO-AFON ROAD KWRA STATE

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ABSTRACT

This project focuses on investigation into the causes and Remedial measures of pavement failure at Ganmon-Afon road Kwara State.

The measuring of pavement and types of pavement. Types of pavement failures causes of pavement were studied and possible solution were provided. Form the investigation causes of pavement failure were identified as ranging from. Use of substandard materials. Inadequate compaction. Poor material strength due to the presence of refuse particle in the materials used. Poor maintenance improper drainage and improper chamber of the road. Some major are pothole, defects observed on the roads are cracking reveling rutting, blast erosion edge deterioration and drainage blockage. The soil samples were collected from three deferent portion of the road. The photographs of failed section were taken. Those problems can be ratified by not compromising standard of work during construction proper maintenance practices from time to and high quality control measure during construction and rehabilitation.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Declaration                                                                                                  iii

Dedication                                                                                                   iv

Acknowledgement                                                                              v

Abstract                                                                                                       vi

Table of content                                                                                           vii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction                                                                                        1
    1. Aims and objective                                                                    3       
    1. Scope and objective                                                                           3
    1. Justification                                                                                                 4
    1. Research methodology                                                                       5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review                                                                                   6

2.1 Failure Of Pavement and their                                                                 7

2.1.1 Structural failure                                                                                  7

2.1.2 Function failure                                                                                    8

2.2.2 Factor to be considered in the construction of Road                     10

2.2.3 Geological Factor (design)                                                                   10

2.2.2 Geotechnical Factor                                                                             11

2.2.3 Usage factor                                                                                       12

2.3 Common form of pavement                                                                     13

2.3.1 Potholes                                                                                              13

2.3.2 Wheel ruthing                                                                                      14

2.3.3 Cracking                                                                                             15

2.3.4 revealing (pitting)                                                                                16

2.3.5 Blast erosion                                                                                       17

2.3.6 Distortion and wave                                                                    18

2.3.7 Peeling                                                                                                18

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology                                                                                          19

3.1 Reconnance survey of Ganmo- Afon Road                                              20

3.2 Various Types of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon Road                    21

3.3 collection of Samples for Laboratory Test                                                26

3.3.1 Laboratory Test and Procedures                                                 26

3.3.2 Compaction Test                                                                                 27

3.4 California Bearing Ration (CBT) Test                                                      33

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of Results                                                         37

4.1 Types and Causes of Pavement Failure on Ganmo- Afon                         37

Roads

4.2 Subgrade Materials                                                                                38

4.3 Relative Compaction                                                                     38

4.4 California Bearing Ratio (CBT)                                                                39

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation                                                  39

5.1 conclusions                                                                                            39

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                    39

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Transportation is the movement of people and goods from one part or place to another. So road transportation is one of the most efficient means of transportation all over the world.

          The efficiency and convenience of transportation of goods and passengers are determined by function of road pavement our daily activities required the movement from one location to another either by one mode of transportation or by combining at different modes of transportation.

          According to Oguara (2010) roads represent the major areas at investment in transportation and are the most dominant travel mode accounting for over 90% of passengers and goods transport in Nigeria road one of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the state of Nigerian roads Ette (2010) states that there was a road not work study that commissioned in 1998/1999. This study cover all inter-urban road which had a traffic of move than 30 vehicle day and a total length of around 53. 00km

          So the way of placing the pavement on the road networks also contribute to the social economic growth and to the development of the communities. Pavements take an important part in over all towns and countries planning.

Highway engineers have always been trying their best to design construct and maintain high way in Nigeria and beyond but upon all their best and technical know how, the roads are still failing and accommodation series of defect as the days goes by it’s high time to see into the causes and effects these road failures and their result on the uses also the life span at the road so as to fulfill its intending purpose.

Highway maintenance purposely keep pavement in a satisfactory condition so as not to obstruct the traffic flow on the road maintenance of asphalt pavement is referred to as a set of organized activities that carried out in order to keep pavement in its best operational condition with minimum cost required.  

Roads is constructed without any scientific basis will require elaborate maintenance but if they are constructed adopting all the scientific fundamentals even then they require maintenance but to the lesser degree.

This project is to focus on investigation of pavement failure and their remedial measure on Ganmo- Afon road and possible solution would be provided to correct those failure it will also explain what highway pavement will be included. Ganmo  Road designation are classified into four groups which are:   

  • Express Road:  These are international roads linking other neighboring countries and inter-states linking man political and commercial centre will high volume capacity for example Lagos to Ibadan express way.
  • Truck Road: These are roads in the purposely for heavy traffic charring route between political and economic cities example are Ogbomosho to Ilorin road.
  • Principal road: These are major roads in the state link important political and industrial together for example Maraba to Kwara State Polytechnic Road.
  • Non Principal Road: These are collection road in both urban and rural areas which link important town in local Government area together. Therefore road as a matter of fact must be given an adequate attention to both its design and construction stage in order to accord its engineering purposes.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

One of the main problems of road work in Nigeria is the lack of adequate information data on the Nigeria roads e.g Natural conditions, traffic conditions, and construction materials are the main causes of soft spots on the earth road edge damage of bituminous pavement, culvert slide down slide ditch erosion, side drain deposition e.t.c.

INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND REMEDIAL MEASURES OF PAVEMENT FAILURE CASE STUDY OF GANMO-AFON ROAD KWRA STATE