PERCEPTION OF NIGERIANS ON THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN NIGERIA (INDUSTRIAL RELATION AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS)
The general purpose of this study was to determine impact of Electricity Generation and Distribution on the environment in Nigeria. Specifically, the study determined the following (i) the negative impact of hydro stations on the environment (ii) the negative impact of steam and gas stations and environment (iii) the negative impact of Distribution system in Nigeria (iv) measures to eliminate the negative impact of generating and distribution system on the environment. Four research questions were answered and four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Area of the study was six major generating stations in Nigeria.
The population was made up of 1560 comprising of 1033 householders and 527 senior staff of the generating stations used for the study. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean, standard deviation and t-test statistic were used for data analysis. The findings of the study evolved on (i) the negative impact of hydro stations on the environment which include: displacement of people from their natural habitats, leads to destruction of animals and terrestrial organisms and leads to psychological stress resulting from mere thought of relocation; flooding due to dam construction obliterates homes and agricultural land; (ii) Negative impact of gas stations on the environment;
Health effects of poisonous gases such as sulphur dioxide, ozone emitted to the atmosphere by gas generating stations include: respiratory irritation, swelling of the air ways, harms lungs, coughing, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection (iii) Negative impact of electricity distribution: there is habitat loss including interference with migration disposal pathways on the power lines and obstructions to vehicles and trees in cities (iv) measures to eliminate the negative impact of Electricity distribution and generation in Nigeria: Use of Life Cycle Assessment; natural gas combined cycle; changing of harmful emissions in gas by improving the technology of combination process. Based on findings, twelve recommendations were made. This include among others, a switch over to solar or nuclear and renewable energy sources in most of the generating stations; employing the services of meteorogists and hydrologists in hydro generating stations to avert the problems of over flooding.
Background of the Study
Environment is the ecology, the air, water minerals, organisms and all other external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time. In support of this, Ahove (2005) defined environment as the totality of natural and social systems in which humans live and obtain their needs for survival. It is also the combination of external conditions that influence the life of individual organisms. The external environment comprises of the interrelationship between abiotic and biotic components. According to Barrow (1995), environment is the sum total of the conditions within which organisms live; it is the result of interaction between non-living (abiotic-physical and chemical where present) and living (biotic) parameters. The authors further stated that environment may be said to be all external conditions that affect an organism or other specific systems during the life. Egnabor and Adona (2005) are of the opinion that environment includes a complex of natural, built and social components in the life of humanity. The authors further said that the major environmental issues or interactions relating to the atmosphere are atmospheric pollution, ozone layer depletion and global warming; which are as a result of human activities such as electricity generation. Human activities are as a result, largely responsible for air pollution, increasing concentration in the atmosphere by carbondoxide, methane chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS), nitrous oxide, nitrogen and other gases.
Furthermore, environment is interlinked with human health and should be safe guarded for her cooperate existence. Ran & Wooten (2000) defined environment as the whole complex of the physical, socio cultural, economic and esthetic factors that affect individuals and communities and….