PRODUCTION OF SAUERKRAUT USING NORMAL FLORA AND STARTER CULTURE OF LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM

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ABSTRACT

The main aim of this study was to produce sauerkraut from locally grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The cabbage was bought from a vendor of fresh fruits and vegetables. This was put in food grade container and transported to microbiology laboratory. It was washed and then shredded to 3-4mm and divided into three parts and placed into three separate airtight containers. The sauerkraut was analyzed for pH, at 2 days interval. A descriptive sensory panel used a point Hedonic scale to rate the flavor, colour, taste, appearance and overall acceptability of the sauerkraut samples. One container was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum but the other containers were not inoculated. Salt (2.2g) was added to sauerkraut and kept for fermentation for 2 weeks. It was observed that the pH decreased with increased fermentation time. Microbiological and chemical analysis of the sauerkraut during 2 weeks fermentation period, showed bacterial count of 6.7×102 cfu/gm of day 2 fermentation to 8.3 x 102 cfu/gm of day 4 fermentation these decreased to 2.6×103 cfu/ml of day 6, 3.8 x 103 cfu/ml of day 8, 3.1×104 cfu/ml of day 10 and 1.2×105 cfu/ml of day 12 respectively. This was to show that sauerkraut though not popular in this part of the world can still be produced and eaten for better health.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                 i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                         ii

DEDICATION                                                                                               iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                           iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                   v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                               vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                         ix

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                       x

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION       

1.1 Background of the study                                                                          1

  1. Justification of the study                                                                          3

1.3 Aim and objectives of the study                                                               4

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 History of sauerkraut                                                                                5

2.1.1 Technology of sauerkraut fermentation                                                 6

2.2 Fermentation                                                                                             7

2.2.1 Microorganisms during natural fermentation                                         8

2.2.1.1 Lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid fermentation                               10

2.2.2 Sauerkraut fermentation                                                                                    12

2.2.3 Effect of fermentation temperature                                                       12

2.2.4 Health benefit of sauerkraut                                                                  15

2.2.5 Nutritional value of sauerkraut                                                              18

2.2.6 Uses of sauerkraut                                                                                 19

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Materials                                                                                                   21

3.2 Preparation of media and reagents                                                           21

3.3 Methods                                                                                                    21

3.3.1 Collection of sample                                                                              21

3.3.2 Preparation of bacterial inocula for controlled fermentation                 21

3.3.3 Production and fermentation process                                                    22

3.3.3.1 Shredding of cabbage                                                                                     22

3.3.3.2 Adding salt                                                                                         22

3.3.3.3 Moving it to fermentation jar                                                              22

3.3.3.4 Fermentation                                                                                       23

3.3.3.5 Dehydration                                                                                        25

3.3.3.6 Packaging                                                                                            25

3.3.4 Enumeration of microorganisms                                                            25

3.5 Chemical analysis                                                                                      25

3.5.1 Total acids                                                                                              26

3.5.2 Volatile acids                                                                                         26

3.5.3 Ascorbic acids/vitamin C                                                                       26

3.5.4 Biochemical characterization and identification of isolates                  27

3.5.5 Sensory evaluation                                                                                 27

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.1Fermentation of sauerkraut                                                                        28

4.2Sensory evaluation of the produced sauerkraut                                         28

4.3 Enumeration of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation                         33

4.4 Effect of Fermentation on pH                                                                  33

4.5 Biochemical characterization and identification of Lactobacilli isolates    33

CHAPTER FIVE:    DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Discussion                                                                                     37

5.2  Conclusions                                                                                              40

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                    41

REFERENCES                                                                                              42

APPENDIX                                                                                        45